International Variations in Bladder Cancer Incidence and Mortality
Chavan S1, Bray F2, Lortet-Tieulent J3, Goodman M4, Jemal A5. Eur Urol. 2013 Oct 16. pii: S0302-2838(13)01074-9. doi: 10.1016/j.eururo.2013.10.001. [Epub ahead of print]

Author information

1American Cancer Society, Atlanta, GA, USA. 2Section of Cancer Information, International Agency for Cancer Research, Lyon, France. 3American Cancer Society, Atlanta, GA, USA; Section of Cancer Information, International Agency for Cancer Research, Lyon, France. 4Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA. 5American Cancer Society, Atlanta, GA, USA. Electronic address:


CONTEXT: Previous studies have reported substantial worldwide regional variations in bladder cancer (BCa) incidence and mortality.

OBJECTIVE: To describe contemporary international variations in BCa incidence and mortality rates and trends using the most recent data from the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC).

EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: Estimated 2008 BCa incidence and mortality rates for each country by sex were obtained from GLOBOCAN. Recent trends in incidence for 43 countries and in mortality for 64 countries were assessed by join-point model using data from the IARC's Cancer Incidence in Five Continents and from the World Health Organisation's mortality database, respectively.

EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: The highest incidence rates for both men and women are found in Europe, the United States, and Egypt, and the lowest rates are found in sub-Saharan Africa, Asia, and South America. Mortality rates are highest in parts of Europe and northern Africa and lowest in Asia, Central America, and middle Africa. Incidence rates among men decreased in 11 of 43 countries (46 registries) (North America, western and northern Europe), remained stable in 20, and increased in 12 countries (southern, central, and eastern Europe). Among women, incidence rates decreased in 10 countries, stabilised in 22 countries, and increased in 12 countries. Mortality rates among men decreased in 32 of 65 countries (throughout all world regions except Central and South America), stabilised in 30 countries, and increased in 3 (Romania, Slovenia, and Cuba). Among women, mortality rates decreased in 24 countries, remained stable in 36 countries, and increased in 5 countries (central and eastern Europe).

CONCLUSIONS: Incidence and mortality rates in general decreased in most Western countries but increased in some eastern European and developing countries. These patterns in part may reflect differences in the stage and extent of the tobacco epidemic, changes in coding practices, prevalence of schistosomiasis (Africa), and occupational exposure.