Bladder cancer epidemiology and genetic susceptibility
Chu H, Wang M, Zhang Z. J Biomed Res. 2013 May;27(3):170-8. doi: 10.7555/JBR.27.20130026. Epub 2013 Mar 25.


Department of Environmental Genomics, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Cancer Biomarkers, Prevention and Treatment, Cancer Center, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 211166, China; ; Department of Genetic Toxicology, the Key Laboratory of Modern Toxicology of Ministry of Education, School of Public Health, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 211166, China.


Bladder cancer is the most common malignancy of the urinary system. The incidence of bladder cancer of men is higher than that of women (approximately 4:1). Here, we summarize the bladder cancer-related risk factors, including environmental and genetic factors. In recent years, although the mortality rate induced by bladder cancer has been stable or decreased gradually, the public health effect may be pronounced. The well-established risk factors for bladder cancer are cigarette smoking and occupational exposure. Genetic factors also play important roles in the susceptibility to bladder cancer. A recent study demonstrated that hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer is associated with increased risk of bladder cancer. Since 2008, genome-wide association study (GWAS) has been used to identify the susceptibility loci for bladder cancer. Further gene-gene or gene-environment interaction studies need to be conducted to provide more information for the etiology of bladder cancer.