Impact of 18F-Fluoride PET in Patients with Known Prostate Cancer: Initial Results from the National Oncologic PET Registry
Hillner BE1, Siegel BA, Hanna L, Duan F, Shields AF, Coleman RE. J Nucl Med. 2014 Feb 27. [Epub ahead of print]

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1Department of Internal Medicine and the Massey Cancer Center, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia.


Under Medicare's Coverage with Evidence Development policy, PET using 18F-sodium fluoride (NaF PET) to identify osseous metastasis became a covered service if prospective registry data were collected. The National Oncologic PET Registry (NOPR) developed a NaF PET registry built on the foundation of its prior registry for PET with 18F-FDG. Men with prostate cancer represented 72% of the cases.

METHODS: Prospective data before and after NaF PET were collected from referring and interpreting physicians. The analysis set consisted of consenting men age 65 y or older with prostate cancer undergoing NaF PET for initial staging (IS, n = 1,024), suspected first osseous metastasis (FOM, n = 1,997), or suspected progression of osseous metastasis (POM, n = 510).

RESULTS: Referring physicians indicated that if NaF PET were not available, other advanced imaging (body CT, MR imaging, or 18F-FDG PET) would be their plan in about half of the cases. After NaF PET, the postimaging plan was revised to treatment in 77%, 52%, and 71% for IS, FOM, and POM, respectively. When intended management was classified as either treatment or nontreatment, the overall change in intended management ranged from 44% to 52% and from 12% to 16% if no effect was assumed for those cases with pre-PET plans for other imaging (imaging-adjusted impact). Interpreting physicians recorded definite findings of bone metastasis in 14%, 29%, and 76% for IS, FOM, and POM, respectively. The intended care patterns varied widely across indication and scan abnormality category combinations.

CONCLUSION: NaF PET has high overall impact, principally related to its effect on replacing intended use of other advanced imaging. Its imaging-adjusted impact was similar to that observed with 18F-FDG PET for restaging or suspected recurrence in other cancer types.