Maintenance Therapy with Intravesical Bacillus Calmette-Guerin in Patients with Intermediate- or High-risk Non-muscle-invasive Bladder Cancer
Muto S, Nakajima A, Horiuchi A, Inoue M, China T, Saito K, Isotani S, Hisasue SI, Yamaguchi R, Ide H, Horie S. Jpn J Clin Oncol. 2013 Jan 9. [Epub ahead of print]

Source

Department of Urology, Teikyo University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

We investigated the efficacy, safety and an optimal schedule of maintenance therapy with intravesical instillation of Bacillus-Calmette Guérin in patients with non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer.

METHODS:

We compared the oncological outcome and adverse events of maintenance Bacillus-Calmette Guérin therapy (n = 40) with control subjects (n = 64) of Bacillus-Calmette Guérin induction therapy. Maintenance therapy was scheduled to be administered in 3-week cycles at 6, 12, 18, 24 and 36 months after the induction therapy.

RESULTS:

There was a significant difference in the 5-year recurrence-free survival rate between the maintenance and induction groups in all patients (72.4 vs. 62.0%; P = 0.019) and in patients with high recurrence risk (100.0 vs. 17.9%; P = 0.009). There was a significant difference in the 5-year progression-free survival rate between the maintenance and induction groups in patients with high progression risk (100.0 vs. 69.3%; P = 0.047). Maintenance Bacillus-Calmette Guérin instillations for a total of four times or more (recurrence-free survival: hazard ratio: 0.2, P = 0.039) or with a total dosage of >243 mg (recurrence-free survival: hazard ratio: 0.2, P = 0.041) after 6 months of induction therapy significantly improve tumor recurrence-free survival and progression-free survival. There were no significant differences between induction therapy and maintenance therapy in the frequency of all adverse drug reactions.

CONCLUSIONS:

Bacillus-Calmette Guérin maintenance therapy was effective in preventing the recurrence and progression of high-risk non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer. Maintenance Bacillus-Calmette Guérin instillations for a total of four times or more or with a total dosage of >243 mg after 6 months of induction therapy are necessary to obtain the optimal effect as maintenance therapy.