Management of non-muscle-invasive (superficial) bladder cancer
Nargund VH, Tanabalan CK, Kabir MN. Semin Oncol. 2012 Oct;39(5):559-72. doi: 10.1053/j.seminoncol.2012.08.001.


Department of Urology, Homerton Hospital, London, UK. Electronic address:


Non-muscle-invasive (superficial) bladder cancer (NMIBC) represents 80% of incident cases of bladder cancer, and is characterized by a generally good prognosis, with a tendency to remain localized. Only 10%-20% of cases progress to invasion and/or metastasis. The biggest problem in management is the potential for local recurrence, and this will occur with relatively predictable prognostic determinants. Gene expression and other cell surface determinant are associated with outcome. In most cases, successful management is predicated on careful history taking and physical assessment, meticulous endoscopic assessment, and transurethral resection of bladder tumor tissue where indicated. Histology determines the potential for recurrence. Options of treatment include repeat resection, immunologic therapy via intravesical instillation, and the use of intravescally administered cytotoxic agents, including mitomycin C, doxorubicin, gemcitabine, and selected investigational compounds. Of importance, as some cases have the potential to invade and metastasize, timing of cystectomy for recurrent, high-risk tumors is important to avoid unnecessary morbidity and mortality.