Radiologic imaging of patients with bladder cancer
Purysko AS, Leão Filho HM, Herts BR. Semin Oncol. 2012 Oct;39(5):543-58. doi: 10.1053/j.seminoncol.2012.08.010.


Department of Radiology, Section of Abdominal Imaging, and Glickman Urological and Kidney Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH.


Imaging has an ancillary but important role in the detection, staging, and follow-up of bladder cancer. Computed tomography urography (CTU) has widely replaced intravenous urography (IVU) and is currently the imaging modality most commonly used for the initial evaluation of patients with or suspected of having bladder tumors, as CTU allows a fast and comprehensive evaluation of the urinary tract in a single exam. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) affords better soft tissue contrast, which allows for more accurate staging than can be achieved with other imaging modalities; the role of MRI in bladder cancer is expected to grow. Despite myriad technical advances, imaging of the bladder has several limitations and technical challenges. The performance of the common and some promising newer imaging modalities in the evaluation of bladder cancer are discussed.