CCND1/CyclinD1 status in metastasizing bladder cancer: a prognosticator and predictor of chemotherapeutic response
Seiler R, Thalmann GN, Rotzer D, Perren A, Fleischmann A. Mod Pathol. 2013 Jul 26. doi: 10.1038/modpathol.2013.125.


1] Institute of Pathology, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland [2] Department of Urology, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland.


The CCND1 gene encodes the protein CyclinD1, which is an important promoter of the cell cycle and a prognostic and predictive factor in different cancers. CCND1 is amplified to a substantial proportion in various tumors, and this may contribute to CyclinD1 overexpression. In bladder cancer, information about the clinical relevance of CCND1/CyclinD1 alterations is limited. In the present study, amplification status of CCND1 and expression of CyclinD1 were evaluated by fluorescence in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry on tissue microarrays from 152 lymph node-positive urothelial bladder cancers (one sample each from the center and invasion front of the primary tumors, two samples per corresponding lymph node metastasis) treated by cystectomy and lymphadenectomy. CCND1 amplification status and the percentage of immunostained cancer cells were correlated with histopathological tumor characteristics, cancer-specific survival and response to adjuvant chemotherapy. CCND1 amplification in primary tumors was homogeneous in 15% and heterogeneous in 6% (metastases: 22 and 2%). Median nuclear CyclinD1 expression in amplified samples was similar in all tumor compartments (60-70% immunostained tumor nuclei) and significantly higher than in non-amplified samples (5-20% immunostained tumor nuclei; P<0.05). CCND1 status and CyclinD1 expression were not associated with primary tumor stage or lymph node tumor burden. CCND1 amplification in primary tumors (P=0.001) and metastases (P=0.02) and high nuclear CyclinD1 in metastases (P=0.01) predicted early cancer-related death independently. Subgroup analyses showed that chemotherapy was particularly beneficial in patients with high nuclear CyclinD1 expression in the metastases, whereas expression in primary tumors and CCND1 status did not predict chemotherapeutic response. In conclusion, CCND1 amplification status and CyclinD1 expression are independent risk factors in metastasizing bladder cancer. High nuclear CyclinD1 expression in lymph node metastases predicts favorable response to chemotherapy. This information may help to personalize prognostication and administration of adjuvant chemotherapy.