Urinary markers for bladder cancer
Smith ZL, Guzzo TJ. F1000Prime Rep. 2013 Jul 1;5:21. doi: 10.12703/P5-21. Print 2013.


Division of Urology, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Perelman Center for Advanced Medicine 3rd Floor, West Pavilion, 3400 Civic Center Blvd Philadelphia, PA 19104.


Bladder cancer has the fifth highest incidence of all malignancies in the United States, with a propensity to recur, requiring lifelong surveillance after diagnosis. Urinary markers of disease have been of extreme interest in this field in an effort to simplify surveillance schedules and improve early detection of tumors. Many markers have been described, but most remain investigational. However, some markers have undergone clinical trials and are approved for clinical use. In this review, urinary markers and their application for screening and surveillance of bladder cancer are discussed.