Emerging personalized approaches for the management of advanced urothelial carcinoma
Tsao CK, Gartrell BA, Oh WK, Galsky MD. Expert Rev Anticancer Ther. 2012 Dec;12(12):1537-43. doi: 10.1586/era.12.141.

Source

Division of Hematology and Medical Oncology, Tisch Cancer Institute, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, NY, USA.

Abstract

Urothelial carcinoma of the bladder comprises a spectrum of illnesses ranging from nonmuscle-invasive to muscle-invasive to advanced/metastatic disease. Each of these clinical states is characterized by a unique pathogenesis, prognosis and approach to treatment. However, given the heterogeneity of urothelial carcinoma, differences in biology and outcomes exist not only among these clinical states but also within each state. Personalized medicine, also commonly referred to as individualized or stratified medicine, offers the potential to optimize treatment for a given patient, based on the ability to accurately predict prognosis, response to treatment and tolerability of treatment. This review will discuss recent efforts, current challenges and future opportunities, for the personalized management of urothelial carcinoma.