Research Progress in Potential Urinary Markers for the Early Detection, Diagnosis and Follow-up of Human Bladder Cancer
Wang HF, Wang JS. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2012;13(5):1723-6.


Department of Urology, Yunnan Institute of Urology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Kunming Medical University, Kunming, China E-mail :


Objective: To summarize and evaluate various urinary markers for early detection, diagnosis and follow- up of human bladder cancer. Methods: A MEDLINE and PUBMED search of the latest literature on urinary markers for bladder cancer was performed. We reviewed these published reports and made a critical analysis. Results: Most urinary markers tend to be less specific than cytology, yielding more false-positive results, but demonstrating an advantage in terms of sensitivity, especially for detecting low grade, superficial tumors. Some tumor markers appear to be good candidates for early detection, diagnosis, and follow-up of human bladder cancer. Conclusion: A number of urinary markers are currently available that appear to be a applicable for clinical detection, diagnosis, and follow-up of bladder cancer. However, further studies are required to determine their accuracy and widespread applicability.