Robotic-assisted radical cystectomy with extracorporeal urinary diversion for urothelial carcinoma of the bladder: analysis of complications and oncologic outcomes in 175 patients with a median follow-up of 3 years
Xylinas E, Green DA, Otto B, Jamzadeh A, Kluth L, Lee RK, Robinson BD, Shariat SF, Scherr DS. Urology. 2013 Dec;82(6):1323-9. doi: 10.1016/j.urology.2013.07.048.

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Department of Urology, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To report oncologic outcomes and complications after robotic-assisted radical cystectomy (RARC).

MATERIALS AND METHODS: From March 2004 to August 2011, 175 consecutive patients underwent RARC with extracorporeal urinary diversion at our institution by a single surgeon. The study design was prospective. Perioperative parameters and postoperative complications were prospectively collected using the modified Clavien system. Recurrence-free survival and cancer-specific survival curves were generated using the Kaplan-Meier method.

RESULTS: A total of 145 men and 30 women with a median age of 73 years and a median body mass index of 27 kg/m(2) underwent RARC. Four patients (2.3%) required conversion to open surgery because of difficulty to progress. One hundred nine patients (62%) underwent a transcutaneous ileal conduit, 40 patients (23%) an orthotopic neobladder, and 26 (15%) a continent cutaneous conduit. The median operating time was 360 minutes (interquartile range [IQR]: 300-420). The median estimated blood loss was 400 mL (IQR: 250-612), with a transfusion rate of 17.0%. The median postoperative length of stay was 7.0 days (IQR: 5.2-10). Early (<30 days) and late surgery-related complications (30-90 days) occurred in 74 (42%) and 59 (34%) patients, respectively. The perioperative mortality rate was 2.8%. The positive soft tissue surgical margins rate was 5%. The median number of lymph nodes removed was 19 (IQR: 12-28). The median follow-up was 37 months (IQR: 21.5-53.5). Actuarial recurrence-free survival and cancer-specific survival at 2, 3, and 5 years after RARC were 67%, 63%, 63% and 73%, 68%, 66%, respectively.

CONCLUSION: RARC achieved mid-term oncologic efficacy. Moreover, the complication rates were comparable with open radical cystectomy series.