Longitudinal Changes of Benign Prostate-specific Antigen and [-2]Proprostate-specific Antigen in Seven Years in a Community-based Sample of Men
Rhodes T, Jacobson DJ, McGree ME, St Sauver JL, Girman CJ, Lieber MM, Klee GG, Demissie K, Jacobsen SJ. Urology. 2012 Mar;79(3):655-61.


Department of Epidemiology, University of Medicine and Dentistry in New Jersey, Piscataway, New Jersey; Department of Epidemiology, Merck Research Laboratories, North Wales, Pennsylvania.



To determine the longitudinal changes of benign prostate-specific antigen (BPSA) and [-2]proPSA and how these changes relate to the outcomes. These markers have been shown to be predictive of prostate cancer (CaP) and benign prostatic hyperplasia treatment; however, little is known about longitudinal changes in these markers.


In 1990, a 25% subsample from a cohort of white men aged 40-79 years, who were randomly selected from Olmsted County, Minnesota residents, completed a detailed clinical examination. BPSA and [-2]proPSA were measured from frozen sera. The men were evaluated biennially (median follow-up 7 years; range 0-8.8). Mixed-effects regression models were used to estimate the longitudinal changes in the BPSA and [-2]proPSA levels overall and by outcomes. Spearman correlations were used to compare these changes with the baseline levels and the annualized changes in urologic measures.


The median and 25th and 75th percentiles annualized percent change for [-2]proPSA and BPSA was 3.7%, 2.5% and 5.2% and 7.3%, 6.8%, and 7.7%, respectively. The annualized percent change for both markers correlated with the baseline and annualized changes in PSA and prostate volume. The annualized percent change increased with increasing age decade for [-2]proPSA but not for BPSA. The rate of increase in [-2]proPSA was significantly greater for men who developed enlarged prostates (median 3.5%, 25th and 75th percentile 2.6% and 4.4%, respectively) or CaP (median 8.1%, 25th and 75th percentile 6.6% and 9.8%, respectively) compared with those who did not develop enlarged prostates (median 1.9%, 25th and 75th percentile 0.9% and 3.0%, respectively) or CaP (median 3.5%, 25th and 75th percentile 2.3% and 4.8%, respectively).


BPSA and [-2]proPSA levels increase over time. The annualized percent change in [-2]proPSA increases with age and might be a useful predictor of CaP development.