Therapy of endocrine disease: Testicular function and fertility in men with Klinefelter syndrome: a review
Aksglaede L, Juul A. Eur J Endocrinol. 2013 Mar 15;168(4):R67-76. doi: 10.1530/EJE-12-0934. Print 2013.


Department of Growth and Reproduction, Rigshospitalet, Section 5064, University of Copenhagen, Blegdamsvej 9, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark.


Klinefelter syndrome, 47,XXY (KS), is the most frequent sex chromosome aberration in males, affecting 1 in 660 newborn boys. The syndrome is characterized by testicular destruction with extensive fibrosis and hyalinization of the seminiferous tubules resulting in small testes, hypergonadotropic hypogonadism, and azoospermia in the majority of cases. Until recently, infertility was considered an untreatable condition in KS. However, with the development of new advanced assisted reproductive techniques such as testicular sperm extraction (TESE) combined with ICSI it seems that KS patients should no longer be labelled as infertile. Especially, microdissection (micro)-TESE has proved to be an advantageous procedure for the identification of testicular spermatozoa in KS. The aim of this review was to describe current knowledge on the testicular changes occurring in KS, the associated changes in reproductive hormones and spermatogenesis, and the existing possibilities of biological fatherhood in 47,XXY patients.