Delayed puberty, eroticism, and sense of smell: A psychological study of hypogonadotropinism, osmatic and anosmatic (Kallmann's syndrome)
Bobrow NA, Money J, Lewis VG. Arch Sex Behav. 1971 Dec;1(4):329-44. doi: 10.1007/BF01638061.


Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences and Department of Pediatrics, The Johns Hopkins University and Hospital, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.


In 13 male patients with a diagnosis of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, associated in five cases with verified hyposmia (Kallmann's syndrome), social development and participation were delayed. The patients associated the lack of visible signs of male puberty with their delayed sociosexual maturation. However, the evidence of physical maturation after treatment did not have the ameliorative effect on their social behavior one would have liked to predict. Dating behavior was limited before and after treatment for all the patients, and sexual interest was low even for the three married ones. The experience of falling in love was notably absent in the relationships described. Two characteristic social reaction patterns were social introversion and hostile rejection of agemates. Intellectual functioning and the incidence of personality pathology were not diagnostically noteworthy. None of the patients had any problems with gender identity except for erotic apathy which extended to masturbation. There was an absence of homosexuality. Possibly hypogonadotropic patients have a primary defect of the hypothalamus, manifesting itself as a dysfunction of the behavioral concomitants of puberty as well as a failure of hormonal puberty.