Diagnosis and treatment of late-onset hypogonadism: Systematic review and meta-analysis of TRT outcomes
Corona G, Rastrelli G, Maggi M.Best Pract Res ClinEndocrinolMetab. 2013 Aug;27(4):557-79. doi: 10.1016/j.beem.2013.05.002. Epub 2013 Jul 5.


Sexual Medicine and Andrology Unit Department of Experimental, Clinical and Biomedical Sciences, University of Florence, Florence, Italy; Endocrinology Unit, Maggiore-Bellaria Hospital, Medical Department, Azienda-Usl Bologna, Bologna, Italy.


Late-onset hypogonadism (LOH) is a relatively common conditions affecting the aging male. The aim of this review is to summarize the available evidence regarding LOH and its interaction with general health. LOH is often comorbid to obesity and several chronic diseases. For this reason lifestyle modifications should be strongly encouraged in LOH subjects with obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and metabolic syndrome (MetS) and good treatment balance of chronic diseases. Medical therapy of LOH should be individualized depending on the etiology of the disease and the patient's expectations. Available evidence seems to suggest that testosterone replacement therapy is able to improve central obesity (subjects with MetS) and glycometabolic control (patients with MetS and T2DM), as well as to increase lean body mass (HIV, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease), along with insulin resistance (MetS) and peripheral oxygenation (chronic kidney diseases). However, it should be recognized that the number of studies on benefits of T supplementation is too limited to draw final conclusions. Longer and larger studies are needed to better clarify the role of TRT in such chronic conditions.