Male endocrine dysfunction
Hotaling JM, Patel Z. Urol Clin North Am. 2014 Feb;41(1):39-53. doi: 10.1016/j.ucl.2013.08.010. Epub 2013 Oct 3.

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Division of Urology, Department of Surgery, School of Medicine, University of Utah, 30 North 1900 East, Salt Lake City, UT 84132, USA. Electronic address:


Evaluation for endocrine function is a pivotal part of the male infertility workup. Endocrine dysfunction may result from endogenous and exogenous sources. This article describes the traditional roles that the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal endocrine axis plays in spermatogenesis and testicular dysfunction, as well as other insults that may contribute to hypospermatogenesis. Recent research into the role alternative hormonal axes play in spermatogenesis and promising new technologies that may correct inborn or acquired endocrinopathies leading to impaired sperm growth and maturation are discussed.