Secondary Causes of Osteoporosis
Hudec SM, Camacho PM. Endocr Pract. 2012 Nov 27:1-31. [Epub ahead of print]


Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Loyola University Medical Center, Maywood, Illinois.


Objective: To provide an updated review of several causes of secondary osteoporosis as well as screening recommendations for these disorders.Methods: We conducted an updated review of the literature, published since 2006 on secondary causes of osteoporosis. This information has been added to the relevant data published between 1990 and 2006 which was included in our prior review from 2006. This current review also includes recent clinical guidelines recommendationsResults: Secondary osteoporosis occurs in almost two-thirds of men, more than half of premenopausal women, and about thirty percent of postmenopausal women. Its causes are vast, and they include hypogonadism, medications, hyperthyroidism, vitamin D deficiency, primary hyperparathyroidism, solid organ transplantation, gastrointestinal diseases, hematologic diseases, Cushing's syndrome, and idiopathic hypercalciuria. These causes have their own pathogenesis, epidemiologic features, and effects on the skeleton.Conclusion: The causes of secondary osteoporosis are numerous, and an understanding of their characteristics with respect to bone density and potential fracture risk is essential in the management of osteoporosis. A heightened awareness of the possibility of their existence is necessary to provide optimal care.