High prevalence of androgen deficiency and abnormal lipid profile in infertile men with non-obstructive azoospermia
J B, M N, Giwercmany L, A G. Int J Androl. 2012 Apr 20. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2605.2012.01277.x. [Epub ahead of print]


Reproductive Medicine Centre, Skåne University Hospital Malmö, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden Molecular Genetic Reproductive Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences Malmö, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden Molecular Reproductive Medicine Research Group, Department of Clinical Sciences Malmö, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden.


In men with non-obstructive azoospermia (NOA), the risk of hypogonadism is often overlooked. Testicular sperm extraction (TESE) may increase this risk. The objective of this study was to elucidate the prevalence of hypogonadism in NOA-patients, the impact of TESE on hormone balance and the association between testosterone deficiency and dyslipidaemia. Men with NOA who had undergone TESE during the period 2004-2009 were eligible. Hypogonadism was defined as total testosterone <10 nmol/L and/or LH >10 IU/L and/or ongoing androgen replacement therapy. Sixty-five consecutive men who had undergone TESE owing to NOA and from whom post-TESE serum testosterone levels measured before 1100 h were available. Furthermore, 141 fertile men served as controls. Serum concentrations of testosterone, LH and lipids were assessed. Odds ratios (OR) for biochemical hypogonadism were calculated. Pre- and post-TESE hormone levels were compared. Lipid profile was related to testosterone levels. Hypogonadism was found in 47% (95% CI, 0.36, 0.59) of the NOA-men. As compared with fertile controls, the OR for hypogonadism post-TESE was 17 (95% CI 6.6-45). Serum LH (p = 0.03), but not testosterone (p = 0.43), differed significantly pre- and post-TESE. Compared with eugonadal NOA-men, the OR for having deviations in lipid profile was 3.3 (95% CI 1.3-8.8) for the hypogonadal NOA-men. NOA-men are at very high risk of androgen deficiency, which even in young subjects is associated with dyslipidaemia. Medical management of these men should therefore include endocrinological evaluation and follow-up after completion of infertility treatment.