Prevalence and risk factors of diabetes in patients with Klinefelter syndrome: a longitudinal observational study
Jiang-Feng M, Hong-Li X, Xue-Yan W, Min N, Shuang-Yu L, Hong-Ding X, Liang-Ming L. Fertil Steril. 2012 Aug 30. [Epub ahead of print]

Source

Key Laboratory of Endocrinology, Department of Endocrinology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Ministry of Health, Beijing, People's Republic of China.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To evaluate the prevalence and risk factors of diabetes in patients with Klinefelter syndrome.

DESIGN:

Retrospective longitudinal study.

SETTING:

Medical college hospital.

PATIENT(S):

Klinefelter group (n = 39) and idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (IHH) group (n = 40).

INTERVENTION(S):

Testosterone replacement therapy.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S):

The metabolic parameters, lipid profiles, and sex hormones were compared before and after T replacement therapy. The median duration of follow-up was 4 years in the Klinefelter group and 5.2 years in the IHH group.

RESULT(S):

The prevalence of diabetes was 20.5% (8 of 39) in the Klinefelter group and 5% in the IHH group. In the Klinefelter group, the incidence of diabetes was 12.5% in patients with 47,XXY karyotype and 57.1% in patients with other atypical karyotypes, such as 46XY/47XXY chimera. In the Klinefelter group, the average (±SD) age at diagnosis of diabetes was 27.1 ± 4.5 years. Four subjects had diabetes before T therapy, and their blood glucose did not improve after T replacement. One patient had a history of acute pancreatitis. Two other subjects had very high triglyceride levels. During the follow-up, body weight increased more in Klinefelter patients than in IHH patients.

CONCLUSION(S):

The prevalence of diabetes is higher in Klinefelter patients than in IHH patients, possibly owing to abnormal karyotypes. Other risk factors, such as low T level, high body weight, acute pancreatitis, and high triglyceride levels, may also contribute to the development of diabetes.