Bone mineral density, body composition and bone turnover in patients with congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism
Laitinen EM, Hero M, Vaaralahti K, Tommiska J, Raivio T. Int J Androl. 2012 Jan 17. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2605.2011.01237.x. [Epub ahead of print]


Children's Hospital, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Central Hospital Institute of Biomedicine/Physiology, Biomedicum Helsinki, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.


Patients with congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (HH) may have reduced peak bone mass in early adulthood, and increased risk for osteoporosis despite long-term hormonal replacement therapy (HRT). To investigate the relationship between HRT history and measures of bone health in patients with HH, we recruited 33 subjects (24 men, nine women; mean age 39.8 years, range: 24.0-69.1) with congenital HH (Kallmann syndrome or normosmic HH). They underwent clinical examination, were interviewed and medical charts were reviewed. Twenty-six subjects underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry for evaluation of BMD of lumbar spine, hip, femoral neck and whole body; body composition and vertebral morphology were evaluated in 22 and 23 subjects, respectively. Circulating PINP, ICTP and sex hormone levels were measured. HRT history clearly associated to bone health: BMDs of lumbar spine, femoral neck, hip and whole body were lower in subjects (n = 9) who had had long (≥5 years) treatment pauses or low dose testosterone (T) treatment as compared to subjects without such history (n = 17; all p-values < 0.05). In addition, fat mass and body mass index (BMI) were significantly higher in men with deficient treatment history (median fat mass: 37.5 vs. 23.1%, p = 0.005; BMI: 32.6 vs. 25.2 kg/m(2) , p < 0.05). Serum PINP correlated with ICTP (r(s)  = 0.61; p < 0.005) in men, but these markers correlated neither with circulating T, nor with serum estradiol levels in women. In conclusion, patients with congenital HH require life-long follow-up to avoid inadequate HRT, long treatment pauses and further morbidity.