Obesity in the ageing man
Michalakis K, Goulis DG, Vazaiou A, Mintziori G, Polymeris A, Abrahamian-Michalakis A. Metabolism. 2013 Jul 4. pii: S0026-0495(13)00172-8. doi: 10.1016/j.metabol.2013.05.019. [Epub ahead of print]

Source

First Department of Internal Medicine, National and Kapodestrian University of Athens, School of Medicine, "Laiko" General Hospital, Athens, Greece.

Abstract

As the population is ageing globally, both ageing and obesity are recognized as major public health challenges. The aim of this narrative review is to present and discuss the current evidence on the changes in body composition, energy balance and endocrine environment that occur in the ageing man. Obesity in the ageing man is related to changes in both body weight and composition due to alterations in energy intake and total energy expenditure. In addition, somatopenia (decreased GH secretion), late-onset hypogonadism (LOH), changes in thyroid and adrenal function, as well as changes in appetite-related peptides (leptin, ghrelin) and, most importantly, insulin action are related to obesity, abnormal energy balance, redistribution of the adipose tissue and sarcopenia (decreased muscle mass). A better understanding of the complex relationship of ageing-related endocrine changes and obesity could lead to more effective interventions for elderly men.

Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

KEYWORDS:

ACTH, ARC, BM, BMI, BMR, BT, CCK, CNS, CRH, DHEA, DHEAS, DHT, DM2, FFM, FT, FT(3), FT(4), GH, GHBH, GHRH, GnRH, HDL, IGF 2, IGF1, IR, LH, LOH, MM, MS, NPY, PAI 1, PPT, PYY, RMR, SHBG, SM, SS, T, T(3), T(4), TBW, TNF, TRH, TSH, TT, WC, WHO, WHR, World Health Organization, adrenocorticotropic hormone, ageing, arcuate nucleus, basal metabolic rate, bioavailable testosterone, body mass, body mass index, central nervous system, cholecystokinin, corticotrophin releasing hormone, dehydroepiandrosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, diabetes mellitus type 2, dihydrotestosterone, fat free mass, free testosterone, free thyroxine, free triiodothyronine, gonadotropin releasing hormone, growth hormone, growth hormone binding protein, growth hormone releasing hormone, high density lipoprotein, hormonal changes, insulin like growth factor 1, insulin like growth factor 2, insulin resistance, late onset hypogonadism, luteinising hormone, man, metabolic syndrome, muscle mass, neuropeptide Y, obesity, peptide tyrosine tyrosine, plasminogen activator inhibitor 1, post prandial thermogenesis, rT(3), resting metabolic rate, reverse triiodothyronine, sex hormone binding globulin, skeletal mass, somatostatin, testosterone, thyroid stimulating hormone, thyrotropine releasing hormone, thyroxine, total body water, total testosterone, triiodothyronine, tumor necrosis factor, waist circumference, waist to hip ratio