Androgen deficiency in aging and metabolically challenged men
Shelton JB, Rajfer J. Urol Clin North Am. 2012 Feb;39(1):63-75. Epub 2011 Oct 13.


Department of Urology, David Geffen School of Medicine at University of California, 10833 LeConte Avenue, Suite 66-124 CHS, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1738, USA.


Androgen deficiency in aging men is common, and the potential sequelae are numerous. In addition to low libido, erectile dysfunction, decreased bone density, depressed mood, and decline in cognition, studies suggest strong correlations between low testosterone, obesity, and the metabolic syndrome. Because causation and its directionality remain uncertain, the functional and cardiovascular risks associated with androgen deficiency have led to intense investigation of testosterone replacement therapy in older men. Although promising, evidence for definitive benefit or detriment is not conclusive, and treatment of late-onset hypogonadism is complicated.