There is more than meets the eye with varicoceles: current and emerging concepts in pathophysiology, management, and study design
Sigman M. Fertil Steril. 2011 Dec;96(6):1281-2.


Rhode Island Hospital, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island.


Varicoceles are known to be associated with male infertility, but the mechanism of infertility and the true effect of varicocele repair remain controversial due to a lack of proper studies and the difficulty of performing proper studies. Other than infertility treatment, varicocele repairs also may performed for a variety of reasons, including testicular pain, hypogonadism, and in adolescents who are not yet trying to conceive.