Electrical and Mechanical Office-based Neuromodulation
Kacker R, Lay A, Das A. Urol Clin North Am. 2013 Nov;40(4):581-9. doi: 10.1016/j.ucl.2013.07.002. Epub 2013 Aug 12.


Division of Urology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, 330 Brookline Avenue, Boston, MA 02215, USA.


Overactive bladder (OAB) is commonly encountered in urologic practice. Treatment algorithms begin with conservative therapy and pharmacotherapy with antimuscarinics. Some patients do not receive adequate relief from these methods or they do not tolerate side effects from pharmacotherapy. A test stimulation for sacral neuromodulation and percutaneous tibial nerve stimulation are office-based techniques that are commonly used as the next step in the algorithm of care in patients with OAB. These techniques are efficacious and approved by the Food and Drug Administration for treatment of overactive bladder and its associated symptoms.