Sacral neuromodulation for refractory overactive bladder, interstitial cystitis, and painful bladder syndrome
Laviana A, Jellison F, Kim JH. Neurosurg Clin N Am. 2014 Jan;25(1):33-46. doi: 10.1016/


Division of Pelvic Medicine and Reconstructive Surgery, Department of Urology, UCLA School of Medicine, 200 Medical Plaza, Suite 140, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA.


Various pelvic floor conditions, including overactive bladder syndrome and chronic pelvic pain, have been successfully managed with the neuromodulation of sacral nerves. Sacral neuromodulation is a minimally invasive procedure involving the implantation of a programmable pulse generator that delivers low-amplitude electrical current via quadripolar tined leads through the S3 foramen. Durable efficacy has been demonstrated in retrospective studies, but questions regarding ideal patient candidacy and optimal technical considerations remain unanswered.