A phase 2 study of KX2-391, an oral inhibitor of Src kinase and tubulin polymerization, in men with bone-metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer
Antonarakis ES, Heath EI, Posadas EM, Yu EY, Harrison MR, Bruce JY, Cho SY, Wilding GE, Fetterly GJ, Hangauer DG, Kwan MF, Dyster LM, Carducci MA. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2013 Jan 13. [Epub ahead of print]

Source

Prostate Cancer Research Program, Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center at Johns Hopkins, 1650 Orleans Street, CRB1-1M45, Baltimore, MD, 21231-1000, USA, eantona1@jhmi.edu.

Abstract

PURPOSE:

KX2-391 is an oral non-ATP-competitive inhibitor of Src kinase and tubulin polymerization. In phase 1 trials, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) declines were seen in patients with advanced prostate cancer. We conducted a single-arm phase 2 study evaluating KX2-391 in men with chemotherapy-naïve bone-metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC).

METHODS:

We treated 31 patients with oral KX2-391 (40 mg twice-daily) until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. The primary endpoint was 24-week progression-free survival (PFS); a 50 % success rate was pre-defined as clinically significant. Secondary endpoints included PSA progression-free survival (PPFS) and PSA response rates. Exploratory outcomes included pharmacokinetic studies, circulating tumor cell (CTC) enumeration, and analysis of markers of bone resorption [urinary N-telopeptide (uNTx); C-telopeptide (CTx)] and formation [bone alkaline phosphatase (BAP); osteocalcin].

RESULTS:

The trial closed early after accrual of 31 patients, due to a pre-specified futility rule. PFS at 24 weeks was 8 %, and median PFS was 18.6 weeks. The PSA response rate (≥30 % decline) was 10 %, and median PPFS was 5.0 weeks. Additionally, 18 % of men with unfavorable (≥5) CTCs at baseline converted to favorable (<5) CTCs with treatment. The proportion of men with declines in bone turnover markers was 32 % for uNTx, 21 % for CTx, 10 % for BAP, and 25 % for osteocalcin. In pharmacokinetic studies, median C (max) was 61 (range 16-129) ng/mL, and median AUC was 156 (35-348) ng h/mL. Common toxicities included hepatic derangements, myelosuppression, fatigue, nausea, and constipation.

CONCLUSION:

KX2-391 dosed at 40 mg twice-daily lacks antitumor activity in men with CRPC, but has modest effects on bone turnover markers. Because a C (max) of ≥142 ng/mL is required for tubulin polymerization inhibition (defined from preclinical studies), higher once-daily dosing will be used in future trials.