Novel therapeutic approaches for the treatment of castration-resistant prostate cancer
Heidegger I, Massoner P, Eder IE, Pircher A, Pichler R, Aigner F, Bektic J, Horninger W, Klocker H. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2013 Jun 20. pii: S0960-0760(13)00117-9. doi: 10.1016/j.jsbmb.2013.06.002. [Epub ahead of print]


Department of Urology, Innsbruck Medical University, Anichstrasse 35, 6020 Innsbruck, Austria.


Prostate cancer is a leading cause of cancer death in men in developed countries. Once the tumor has achieved a castration-refractory metastatic stage, treatment options are limited with the average survival of patients ranging from two to three years only. Recently, new drugs for treatment of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) have been approved, and others are in an advanced stage of clinical testing. In this review we provide an overview of the new therapeutic agents that arrived in the clinical praxis or are tested in clinical studies and their mode of action including hormone synthesis inhibitors, new androgen receptor blockers, bone targeting and antiangiogenic agents, endothelin receptor antagonists, growth factor inhibitors, novel radiotherapeutics and taxanes, and immunotherapeutic approaches. Results and limitations from clinical studies as well as future needs for improvement of CRPC treatments are critically discussed.