Total antioxidant intake in relation to prostate cancer incidence in the health professionals follow up study
Russnes KM, Wilson KM, Epstein MM, Kasperzyk JL, Stampfer MJ, Kenfield SA, Smeland S, Blomhoff R, Giovannucci EL, Willett WC, Mucci LA.Int J Cancer.2013 Aug 19.doi: 10.1002/ijc.28438. [Epub ahead of print]


Departments of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA; Division of Cancer, Surgery and Transplantation, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway; Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.


Epidemiologic evidence on the association of antioxidant intake and prostate cancer incidence is inconsistent. Total antioxidant intake and prostate cancer incidence has not previously been examined. Using the ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP) assay, the total antioxidant content (TAC) of diet and supplements were assessed in relation to prostate cancer incidence. A prospective cohort of 47,896 men aged 40-75 years was followed from 1986 to 2008 for prostate cancer incidence (N=5,656), and they completed food frequency questionnaires (FFQ) every 4 years. A FRAP value was assigned to each item in the FFQ, and for each individual, TAC scores for diet, supplements and both (total) were calculated. Major contributors of TAC intake at baseline were: coffee (28%), fruit and vegetables (23%) and dietary supplements (23%). In multivariate analyses for dietary TAC a weak inverse association was observed; (highest versus lowest quintiles: 0.91 (0.83-1.00, p-trend=0.03) for total prostate cancer, 0.81 (0.64-1.01, p-trend=0.04) for advanced prostate cancer); this association was mainly due to coffee. No association of total TAC on prostate cancer incidence was observed. A positive association with lethal and advanced prostate cancer was observed in the highest quintile of supplemental TAC intake: 1.28 (0.98-1.65, p-trend<0.01) and 1.15 (0.92-1.43), p-trend=0.04). The weak association between dietary antioxidant intake and reduced prostate cancer incidence may be related to specific antioxidants in coffee, to non-antioxidant coffee compounds, or other effects of drinking coffee. The indication of increased risk for lethal and advanced prostate cancer with high TAC intake from supplements warrants further investigation.