Significance of obesity markers and adipocytokines in high grade and high stage prostate cancer in North Indian men - A cross-sectional study
Tewari R, Rajender S, Natu SM, Goel A, Dalela D, Goel MM, Tondon P. Cytokine. 2013 May 10. pii: S1043-4666(13)00173-7. doi: 10.1016/j.cyto.2013.04.008. [Epub ahead of print]


Department of Pathology, King Geogre Medical University, Lucknow, India; Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Moti Lal Nehru Medical College (MLNMC), Allahabad, India. Electronic address:



Prostate cancer (CaP) in India is the 10th most common malignancy affecting men. CaP incidence in India is low, but rising like other countries. The reasons for this racial disparity are uncertain. The foremost reasons that may underlie regional/ethnic differences are genetic polymorphisms, altered hormonal status, socioeconomic status, and obesity. This study aimed at investigating the role of adipocytokines in stimulating the promotion and progression of CaP.


A cross-sectional study on histopathologically proven prostate cancer (N=95) and benign prostatic hyperplasia (N=95) patients was undertaken. CaP patients were classified into high-grade (N=62) and low-grade (N=33), and high stage (N=31) and low stage (N=64) groups. The level of body mass index (BMI), waste to hip ratio (WHR), interleukin-6 (IL-6), leptin, and adiponectin were compared between BPH and CaP groups and between grades and stages of prostate cancer.


The level of BMI was significantly (p<0.001) higher in CaP patients (26.58±4.76) in comparison to BPH (22.15±2.90). Similarly, WHR was significantly (p<0.0001) higher in the CaP patients (1.08±0.37) in comparison to BPH (0.86±0.15). Leptin (BPH: 25.60, CaP: 56.00) and II-6 levels (BPH: 9.90, CaP: 32.30) were significantly higher, but adiponectin was significantly lower in CaP patients as compared to BPH. High grade CaP patients had significantly higher BMI and WHR in comparison to low grade, and WHR was also higher in high stage CaP. Leptin and IL-6 level were higher in high stage and high grade, but adiponectin was low in high stage and high grade groups in comparison to low stage and low grade groups.


Higher BMI and WHR correlate with prostate cancer independently, suggesting obesity to be a promoter of poor prostate health. Leptin and IL-6 appear to have stimulating effect on prostate cancer cells inducing the promotion and progression of CaP, but adiponectin appears to be protective against prostate cancer.