Phase II Trial of Neoadjuvant Docetaxel and CG1940/CG8711 Followed by Radical Prostatectomy in Patients With High-Risk Clinically Localized Prostate Cancer
Vuky J, Corman JM, Porter C, Olgac S, Auerbach E, Dahl K. Oncologist. 2013;18(6):687-8. doi: 10.1634/theoncologist.2011-0234. Epub 2013 Jun 5


Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, Oregon, USA;


Prostate cancer (PC) is the most commonly diagnosed noncutaneous malignancy in American men. PC, which exhibits a slow growth rate and multiple potential target epitopes, is an ideal candidate for immunotherapy. GVAX for prostate cancer is a cellular immunotherapy, composed of PC-3 cells (CG1940) and LNCaP cells (CG8711). Each of the components is a prostate adenocarcinoma cell line that has been genetically modified to secrete granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor. Hypothesizing that GVAX for prostate cancer could be effective in a neoadjuvant setting in patients with locally advanced disease, we initiated a phase II trial of neoadjuvant docetaxel and GVAX. For the trial, the clinical effects of GVAX were assessed in patients undergoing radical prostatectomy (RP). Methods. Patients received docetaxel administered at a dose of 75 mg/m(2) every 3 weeks for 4 cycles. GVAX was administered 2-3 days after chemotherapy preoperatively for four courses of immunotherapy. The first dose of GVAX was a prime immunotherapy of 5×10(8) cells. The subsequent boost immunotherapies consisted of 3×10(8) cells. After RP, patients received an additional six courses of immunotherapy. Pathologic complete response, toxicity, and clinical response were assessed. The primary endpoint of the trial was a pathologic state of pT0, which is defined as no evidence of cancer in the prostate. Results. Six patients completed neoadjuvant docetaxel and GVAX therapy. No serious drug-related adverse events were observed. Median change in prostate-specific antigen (PSA) following neoadjuvant therapy was 1.47 ng/ml. One patient did not undergo RP due to the discovery of positive lymph nodes during exploration. Of the five patients completing RP, four had a downstaging of their Gleason score. Undetectable PSA was achieved in three patients at 2 months after RP and in two patients at 3 years after RP. Conclusions. Neoadjuvant docetaxel/GVAX is safe and well tolerated in patients with high-risk locally advanced PC. No evidence of increased intraoperative hemorrhage or increased length of hospital stay postoperatively was noted. These results justify further study of neoadjuvant immunotherapy.