Dietary Flavonoid and Proanthocyanidin Intakes and Prostate Cancer Risk in a Prospective Cohort of US Men
Wang Y, Stevens VL, Shah R, Peterson JJ, Dwyer JT, Gapstur SM, McCullough ML. Am J Epidemiol. 2014 Feb 23. [Epub ahead of print]


Higher dietary intakes of flavonoids and proanthocyanidins have been associated with a lower risk of several cancers. Few prospective epidemiologic studies have examined individual flavonoids and proanthocyanidins in relation to prostate cancer. We examined these associations in a prospective US cohort of 43,268 men with a mean age of 70 years who completed detailed self-administered questionnaires in 1999-2000. During a mean follow-up of 7.8 years, 3,974 total prostate cancers, including 567 high-grade cases and 362 advanced cases, were ascertained. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to calculate multivariable-adjusted relative risks and 95% confidence intervals. Residual energy-adjusted total flavonoids (for fifth quintile vs. first quintile, relative risk = 1.11, 95% confidence interval: 1.01, 1.23; P for trend = 0.02) and several subclasses were positively associated with overall prostate cancer risk, mostly limited to the top quintile and the first 2 years of follow-up. The associations for total flavonoids, flavan-3-ols, and proanthocyanidins with high-grade prostate cancer risk varied by follow-up time. During follow-up from 2002 to 2009, we observed suggestive inverse trends with higher total flavonoids (P for trend = 0.05) and proanthocyanidins (P for trend = 0.04) with high-grade prostate cancer, but not with advanced prostate cancer. Although evidence is limited, a possible role of total flavonoids and proanthocyanidins in prostate cancer tumor progression deserves further study.