Dickkopf-related protein 3 promotes pathogenic stromal remodeling in benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer
Zenzmaier C, Sampson N, Plas E, Berger P. Prostate. 2013 Jun 14. doi: 10.1002/pros.22691. [Epub ahead of print]

Source

Institute for Biomedical Aging Research, University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria; Department of Internal Medicine, Innsbruck Medical University, Innsbruck, Austria.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Compartment-specific epithelial and stromal expression of the secreted glycoprotein Dickkopf-related protein (Dkk)-3 is altered in age-related proliferative disorders of the human prostate. This study aimed to determine the effect of Dkk-3 on prostate stromal remodeling that is stromal proliferation, fibroblast-to-myofibroblast differentiation and expression of angiogenic factors in vitro.

METHODS:

Lentiviral-delivered overexpression and shRNA-mediated knockdown of DKK3 were applied to primary human prostatic stromal cells (PrSCs). Cellular proliferation was analyzed by BrdU incorporation ELISA. Expression of Dkk-3, apoptosis-related genes, cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors and angiogenic factors were analyzed by qPCR, Western blot analysis or ELISA. Fibroblast-to-myofibroblast differentiation was monitored by smooth muscle cell actin and insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 mRNA and protein levels. The relevance of Wnt/β-catenin and PI3K/AKT signaling pathways was assessed by cytoplasmic/nuclear β-catenin levels and phosphorylation of AKT.

RESULTS:

Knockdown of DKK3 significantly attenuated PrSC proliferation as well as fibroblast-to-myofibroblast differentiation and increased the expression of the vessel stabilizing factor angiopoietin-1. DKK3 knockdown did not affect subcellular localization or levels of β-catenin but attenuated AKT phosphorylation in PrSCs. Consistently the PI3K/AKT inhibitor LY294002 mimicked the effects of DKK3 knockdown.

CONCLUSIONS:

Dkk-3 promotes fibroblast proliferation and myofibroblast differentiation and regulates expression of angiopoietin-1 in prostatic stroma potentially via enhancing PI3K/AKT signaling. Thus, elevated Dkk-3 in the stroma of the diseased prostate presumably regulates stromal remodeling by enhancing proliferation and differentiation of stromal cells and contributing to the angiogenic switch observed in BPH and PCa. Therefore, Dkk-3 represents a potential therapeutic target for stromal remodeling in BPH and PCa. Prostate 9999:1-12, 2013. © 2013 The Authors. Prostate published by Willey-Blackwell. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non-Commercial-NoDerivs Licence, which permits use and distribution in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, the use is non-commercial and no modifications or adaptations are made.